zabbix的數據庫優化

走zabbix的1.6版本開始測試,1.8的版本開始線上使用,線上使用過1.9、2.0、2.2、3.0、4.0的版本,使用或是測試過zabbix1.6之後的所有版本。個人也有之前的SA轉變爲DBA,就zabbix的運維走數據庫層面有一些自己的心得,希望對讀者有所幫助。

1:MySQL版本推薦

MySQL5.7及以上版本,便捷的在線DDL方便zabbix的快速升級
鏈接數據庫方式:zabbix的server、proxy、MySQL數據庫儘量使用域名方式連接,方便進行故障切換。

2:zabbix數據庫的授權

讀寫權限,用作zabbix自身訪問:
grant all privileges on zabbix. to 'zabbix'@'1.1.1.1' identified by 'zabbix';
只讀權限,用作二次開發只讀zabbix數據庫:
grant SELECT on zabbix.
to 'zabbix_ro'@'1.1.1.1' identified by 'zabbixro';

3:MySQL配置文件需要調整的幾個重要參數

innodb_log_files_in_group = 16
innodb_log_file_size = 1G
innodb_file_per_table = 1
max_allowed_packet = 64M
back_log = 1024
max-connections = 2000
sync_binlog = 0
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 0
binlog_format = row
expire_logs_days = 3

4:巧用SQL語句運維zabbix

使用SQL語句更新監控項或是觸發器,提升變更效率,減少對數據庫影響:
/
update zabbix.items set delay=5 where key='icmpping';
update zabbix.items t,zabbix.functions f set f.parameter='30' where f.itemid=t.itemid and t.key
='agent.ping'
/

5:巧用讀寫分離和負載均衡

在做二次開發時,爲避免對線上監控server端的影響,儘量使用獨立的數據庫從庫讀取數據(可能有大量通過API讀取歷史數據庫等只讀操作),需要一個只讀的api接口,此時需要做zabbix數據庫讀寫分離,可以在從庫上過濾掉幾張表,打開從庫的寫權限,這幾張表主要用作用戶登錄的審計、session的記錄,否則可能登錄失敗,:

replicate-wild-ignore-table =zabbix.auditlog
replicate-wild-ignore-table =zabbix.sessions
replicate-wild-ignore-table =zabbix.ids

同時zabbix web_api做負載均衡的時候,請使用IP hash的方式,因爲涉及到session的問題。

6:zabbix升級注意事項

做zabbix的升級,其實是做zabbix數據庫庫表的變更,可能包含表結構的表更、索引的變更、數據的重組等操作,此時需要做一套新的數據庫集羣作爲線上集羣的存庫存在,等數據同步完成,斷掉同步,使用新的zabbix server程序連接新的數據庫集羣完成升級,升級完成後切換線上zabbix server、數據庫域名到新的server和新的數據庫上,這樣能最低限度影響正常的監控。

7:數據庫備份和數據清理

備份主要信息即可,監控數據和審計日誌、events不需要備份,數據量太大。
歷史數據的刪除:包含監控歷史詳情數據和趨勢數據,使用分區的方式進行刪除;另外events表也要定時的清理,使用主鍵進行清理,保留5天左右的即可,並需要定期的進行碎片整理,否則監控大屏顯示會逐步變慢。

8:zabbix server歷史數據和趨勢數據分區

分區sql腳本下載地址:
https://www.zabbix.org/wiki/Docs/howto/mysql_partition
/ 爲歷史表分區做準備。zabbix2.0/3.0 only,3.2以上的版本不需要執行 /

ALTER TABLE history_text DROP PRIMARY KEY, ADD INDEX (id), DROP INDEX history_text_2, ADD INDEX history_text_2 (itemid, id);
ALTER TABLE history_log DROP PRIMARY KEY, ADD INDEX (id), DROP INDEX history_log_2, ADD INDEX history_log_2 (itemid, id);

/ 在server的配置文件中設置HousekeepingFrequency=0,禁用zabbix自帶的清理歷史數據任務 /

/設置歷史監控數據表中的時間字段爲索引,方便後續按照時間取值二次開發/

ALTER TABLE history ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_log ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_str ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_str_sync ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_sync ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_text ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_uint ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_uint_sync ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE trends ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE trends_uint ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE EVENTS ADD INDEX objectid (objectid,VALUE,clock);

/ 如果存在這五個存儲過程則刪除 /

DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_create;
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_drop;
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_maintenance;
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_maintenance_all;
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_verify;

/第一次執行存儲過程/

CALL partition_maintenance_all('zabbix');

/
inser to crontab 每天執行一次存儲過程,生成新的分區和刪除老的分區
#!/bin/sh
/xxxxx/mysql/bin/mysql -uzabbix -pzabbixmonitor --socket=/xxxx/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock --database=zabbix -e "CALL partition_maintenance_all('zabbix');"
/

存儲過程詳情如下:

/ partition_create /

DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_create(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), PARTITIONNAME VARCHAR(64), CLOCK INT)
BEGIN
/
SCHEMANAME = The DB schema in which to make changes
TABLENAME = The table with partitions to potentially delete
PARTITIONNAME = The name of the partition to create
/
/
Verify that the partition does not already exist
/

    DECLARE RETROWS INT;
    SELECT COUNT(1) INTO RETROWS
    FROM information_schema.partitions
    WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND partition_description >= CLOCK;

    IF RETROWS = 0 THEN
            /*
               1. Print a message indicating that a partition was created.
               2. Create the SQL to create the partition.
               3. Execute the SQL from #2.
            */
            SELECT CONCAT( "partition_create(", SCHEMANAME, ",", TABLENAME, ",", PARTITIONNAME, ",", CLOCK, ")" ) AS msg;
            SET @SQL = CONCAT( 'ALTER TABLE ', SCHEMANAME, '.', TABLENAME, ' ADD PARTITION (PARTITION ', PARTITIONNAME, ' VALUES LESS THAN (', CLOCK, '));' );
            PREPARE STMT FROM @SQL;
            EXECUTE STMT;
            DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;
    END IF;

END$$
DELIMITER ;

/ partition_drop /

DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_drop(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE BIGINT)
BEGIN
/
SCHEMANAME = The DB schema in which to make changes
TABLENAME = The table with partitions to potentially delete
DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE = Delete any partitions with names that are dates older than this one (yyyy-mm-dd)
/
DECLARE done INT DEFAULT FALSE;
DECLARE drop_part_name VARCHAR(16);

    /*
       Get a list of all the partitions that are older than the date
       in DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE.  All partitions are prefixed with
       a "p", so use SUBSTRING TO get rid of that character.
    */
    DECLARE myCursor CURSOR FOR
            SELECT partition_name
            FROM information_schema.partitions
            WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND CAST(SUBSTRING(partition_name FROM 2) AS UNSIGNED) < DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE;
    DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET done = TRUE;

    /*
       Create the basics for when we need to drop the partition.  Also, create
       @drop_partitions to hold a comma-delimited list of all partitions that
       should be deleted.
    */
    SET @alter_header = CONCAT("ALTER TABLE ", SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME, " DROP PARTITION ");
    SET @drop_partitions = "";

    /*
       Start looping through all the partitions that are too old.
    */
    OPEN myCursor;
    read_loop: LOOP
            FETCH myCursor INTO drop_part_name;
            IF done THEN
                    LEAVE read_loop;
            END IF;
            SET @drop_partitions = IF(@drop_partitions = "", drop_part_name, CONCAT(@drop_partitions, ",", drop_part_name));
    END LOOP;
    IF @drop_partitions != "" THEN
            /*
               1. Build the SQL to drop all the necessary partitions.
               2. Run the SQL to drop the partitions.
               3. Print out the table partitions that were deleted.
            */
            SET @full_sql = CONCAT(@alter_header, @drop_partitions, ";");
            PREPARE STMT FROM @full_sql;
            EXECUTE STMT;
            DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;

            SELECT CONCAT(SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME) AS `table`, @drop_partitions AS `partitions_deleted`;
    ELSE
            /*
               No partitions are being deleted, so print out "N/A" (Not applicable) to indicate
               that no changes were made.
            */
            SELECT CONCAT(SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME) AS `table`, "N/A" AS `partitions_deleted`;
    END IF;

END$$
DELIMITER ;

/ partition_maintenance /
DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32), TABLE_NAME VARCHAR(32), KEEP_DATA_DAYS INT, HOURLY_INTERVAL INT, CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS INT)
BEGIN
DECLARE OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE VARCHAR(16);
DECLARE PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16);
DECLARE LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP INT;
DECLARE CUR_TIME INT;

    CALL partition_verify(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, HOURLY_INTERVAL);
    SET CUR_TIME = UNIX_TIMESTAMP(DATE_FORMAT(NOW(), '%Y-%m-%d 00:00:00'));

    SET @__interval = 1;
    create_loop: LOOP
            IF @__interval > CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS THEN
                    LEAVE create_loop;
            END IF;

            SET LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP = CUR_TIME + (HOURLY_INTERVAL * @__interval * 3600);
            SET PARTITION_NAME = FROM_UNIXTIME(CUR_TIME + HOURLY_INTERVAL * (@__interval - 1) * 3600, 'p%Y%m%d%H00');
            CALL partition_create(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, PARTITION_NAME, LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP);
            SET @[email protected]__interval+1;
    END LOOP;

    SET OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE=DATE_FORMAT(DATE_SUB(NOW(), INTERVAL KEEP_DATA_DAYS DAY), '%Y%m%d0000');
    CALL partition_drop(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE);

END$$
DELIMITER ;

/ partition_verify /
DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_verify(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), HOURLYINTERVAL INT(11))
BEGIN
DECLARE PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16);
DECLARE RETROWS INT(11);
DECLARE FUTURE_TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP;

    /*
     * Check if any partitions exist for the given SCHEMANAME.TABLENAME.
     */
    SELECT COUNT(1) INTO RETROWS
    FROM information_schema.partitions
    WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND partition_name IS NULL;

    /*
     * If partitions do not exist, go ahead and partition the table
     */
    IF RETROWS = 1 THEN
            /*
             * Take the current date at 00:00:00 and add HOURLYINTERVAL to it.  This is the timestamp below which we will store values.
             * We begin partitioning based on the beginning of a day.  This is because we don't want to generate a random partition
             * that won't necessarily fall in line with the desired partition naming (ie: if the hour interval is 24 hours, we could
             * end up creating a partition now named "p201403270600" when all other partitions will be like "p201403280000").
             */
            SET FUTURE_TIMESTAMP = TIMESTAMPADD(HOUR, HOURLYINTERVAL, CONCAT(CURDATE(), " ", '00:00:00'));
            SET PARTITION_NAME = DATE_FORMAT(CURDATE(), 'p%Y%m%d%H00');

            -- Create the partitioning query
            SET @__PARTITION_SQL = CONCAT("ALTER TABLE ", SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME, " PARTITION BY RANGE(`clock`)");
            SET @__PARTITION_SQL = CONCAT(@__PARTITION_SQL, "(PARTITION ", PARTITION_NAME, " VALUES LESS THAN (", UNIX_TIMESTAMP(FUTURE_TIMESTAMP), "));");

            -- Run the partitioning query
            PREPARE STMT FROM @__PARTITION_SQL;
            EXECUTE STMT;
            DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;
    END IF;

END$$
DELIMITER ;

/ partition_maintenance_all /
DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_maintenance_all(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32))
BEGIN
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_log', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_str', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_text', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_uint', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'trends', 730, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'trends_uint', 730, 24, 14);
END$$
DELIMITER ;

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